One of the most important things that crossover trainers (trainers who are changing from a correction-based approach to a positive one) learn is that training a dog is a fun process of helping their dogs enjoy learning. Breaking the training process into small enough steps for success allows the dog and trainer to enjoy the journey because they are both being challenged while still achieving high success.
Progress means moving towards a goal in small enough steps that that each particular dog needs. Often those steps are much smaller than the trainer expects. Asking for more than a dog can do sets the dog up to fail. Asking for less than he can do (or doing too many repetitions of the same thing) sets him up for boredom. Finding the 'sweet spot' where the dog is steadily making progress with the behavior and is having fun learning is the real training challenge.
Making the Process an Enjoyable One
A good rule of thumb is to set up the environment and choose a specific training session objective (criterion) so that your dog can achieve at least 50% success rate on what you are asking him to do. That means for every 10 repetitions, he gets at least 5 correct and is marked and rewarded for each. That level is the minimum level that most dogs need to continue trying and the behavior is a fun puzzle to figure out. Practice at that specific objective until your dog can get at least 80% (8 out of 10 repetitions) correct before changing the objective to make it just a little more challenging. Just like a good computer game, we need to increase the challenge to keep the dog's interest and joy in playing with us.
Observe and Note the Pattern of Success & Failure
The trick here is to observe the pattern of success. If your dog gets 4 or more in a row correct, he probably is starting to understand what you are asking and you can ask for something a little more challenging. If he gets three in a row correct then makes a mistake, then he needs more practice at that level. Alternatively, if he gets something wrong twice in a row in a training session, then it is up to you to make something easier so he can succeed the third time. That success will keep him motivated to keep trying despite the failure.
Changing the Objective on the Fly
If your dog did get two in a row wrong, you will need to immediately change something about what you are asking to make it easier. This "in the moment" evaluation is called "formative evaluation" in education circles. Applying formative evaluation during training sessions is a key skill that allows you to focus on the training process rather than the end product.
With an enjoyable (just the right challenge level) process, a good product is more likely. The desired final behavior can then be achieved.Ultimately we are looking for progress not perfection!
As trainers, we need to remember that while we can get behaviors to be reliable, they will never be "perfect" since dogs, like us, are variable in their behavior no matter how well trained they or we are. That is another reason we focus on progress, not perfection.
with Lisa G White of Positive Pet Advice FB Group.
- DH: Hi Everyone! Thanks for inviting me here again!
- LGW: It's a pleasure having you here with us again, Donna. Well let's get the ball rolling - how long have you been training Service Dogs? How long have you been training Service Dogs?
DH: I have been helping people train their own assistance dogs via Youtube, Skype and online classes since 2008. Hence my Youtube channel name of supernaturalbc2008. I started when I realized how easy it was to train tasks with clicker training. No physical strength is needed. Just break them down into small enough steps for the dog to succeed.
- LGW: Do you train dogs to hand over to someone or do you teach owners with their existing dogs?
DH: I help people choose and train their own dogs, do day training and help clients to top up training of dogs obtained from programs. Not all service dogs work in public. A service dog can work only at home for tasks that are done at home, such as waking a person from night terrors or when they go into a diabetic low or alerting them to a sound when they take their hearing aids out. Not everyone wants or needs a dog that can do public access.
- LGW: What qualities are key for a dog to become a Service Dog?
DH: Keeping it super simple: For public access, they need to be healthy, have a good temperament, food-motivated and be bombproof. There are many others of course. LOL! On my website, I have a free class that helps guide people on what qualities to look for in an adult dog and when looking for a breeder for a future service puppy. Here is a list of some of the key characteristics to look for in an adult dog.
- medically and structurally healthy dog from long-lived lines
- adaptable to different situations and expectations
- be food or toy motivated or both for training
- wants to interact and be with people but not overly friendly as you need the dog’s focus to be on the handler
- low to medium exercise needs (unless handler leads an active lifestyle)
- has body awareness so not knocking into things, people
- forgiving if you accidentally run over his feet with a wheel etc
- social with other dogs (polite but not overly interested in them)
- low to no prey drive (cats, rabbits etc)
- inhibited bite when in play - soft mouth is ideal
- tolerant to loud sounds like thunderstorms, gunshot, fireworks (must have been introduced when young)
Because there are so many characteristics that they need to have, service dog candidates can be difficult to find. I once heard an SD trainer say "You need a service dog candidate, not a rehabilitation project." I have come to agree with her! It's a long and hard enough process starting with a good dog! Some of the more successful programs breed their own lines of labs, goldens, standard poodles or mixes of these. Others use rescue dogs but must assess about 400 shelter dogs before they find one that is a suitable candidate. If a person lives in an area with few rescue dogs, it can be difficult for them to find a suitable dog to train. Reported success rates for program bred dogs (50-80%) are much higher than for both for shelter dogs (15-30%) and owner-trained dogs (unknown but low judging by the number of multiple dogs many have.) Owners have to be willing to either have multiple dogs, use the dog only at home or rehome a dog that doesn't meet the standards for public access. Aggression, fear, overly-social and health issues are the most common reasons dogs fail to become a service dog with public access.
5. LGW: How long is the process in training a dog to become a fully qualified Service Dog?
DH: For owner-trained dogs who have medical issues that slow the training process, or who are new to training, I tell them to expect to expect their dog to be at least 3 years old if they are training from a puppy. If they get an adult dog that is 18 months to 3 years, then at least a year from the time they get the dog, depending on how much previous training and public access experience the dog has done and their own skill and knowledge of training dogs. Programs can do it in shorter periods (18 months to 2 years) because they have professional trainers who are working with the dog 5 days a week, plus they have the physical resources such as training space, transportation, access to other dogs, people and props available when they need it. They also have developed a process that works. Most dogs are not emotionally mature enough to handle full public access until at least 2yrs anyway. If you get a dog 18 months or older, they have gone through fear periods and you have a pretty good idea what the working ability will be like.
6. LGW: What are some of the tasks that a Service Dog is trained for?
DH: Tasks are really the sexy stuff of service dogs. They are comparatively easy compared to public access training. Today, with a good understanding of the principles of clicker training, the only limit to tasks is the creativity of the trainer or handler, the ability to generalize the task anywhere and knowledge of the client's specific disabilities.
Common tasks are retrieving items for a mobility-impaired person, alerting a hard-of-hearing person to a car behind them or someone calling their name. Autism dogs can keep a child from running away or from hurting himself. Seizure response dogs stay with the person when they have a seizure and are there when they come out of a seizure.
More rare are seizure alert dogs who can predict an impending seizure so the handler can get to a safe place.
A dog trained as an Alzheimer's dog can go get the caregiver when the person gets out of their chair or lead the handler home on a walk.
Psychiatric assistance dogs are on the rise for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Anxiety etc.
For anxiety, dogs can interrupt self-harm behaviors, or lead a person to an exit when they are panicked or confused. The most recent application is to detect a rise in cortisol levels when the person is becoming stressed as an anxiety alert.
Here's one of my public videos that show how to train an anxiety alert:
7. LGW: How do you pair up the right dog to the right person?
DH: This is a very important question as it the foundation for success. When helping a person to chose their own dog we look at their lifestyle, where they live, their resources, their abilities and what they need the dog to do for them. Would starting with a puppy or an adult dog work best for them? Activity levels, grooming requirements of the dog and of course the tasks needed. Size and structure may be important for the tasks as well as food costs. The dog must be physically capable of doing tasks and be able to handle the physical and emotional stress of doing them every day for however long is needed.
I see many people who come to me who have chosen the wrong dog for the situation and job. Even with careful research, they are not familiar with what they actually need and a breeder or rescue organization may not be familiar with what the person's reality is. For example, a dog from working lines might sound like a good match for someone who needs motivation to get out for a walk, but in reality, is likely to be too demanding in mental and physical exercise needs for the person to live with.
With owner-trained service dogs, when mismatches occur, it is heartbreaking. Most people do not want to give up a dog they have bonded with and put many hours of training into. But the dog is not meeting their needs and is costing them the limited resources they have. I suggest that people find a trainer to help them at least rule out obviously inappropriate breeders or adult dogs. Sadly, there are far more dogs that won't be suitable as service dogs for them than ones that will.
8. LGW: What are the realities of living with a Service Dog?
DH: This is super question! One that most people overlook when thinking about training their own SD. But very important as I know people that have stopped training as they didn't like the attention they got and stress it caused having a dog with them.
It takes a team of people to raise and meet a dog's daily needs, and train it to public access standards. The handler needs to take care of the dog just like the dog takes care of the handler. Training the dog to be a service dog takes 100% focus on the dog during training. It takes planning, dedication and someone who can stay motivated. And that is above the basic daily needs of all dogs (food, water, pottying, cleaning up, play, exercise, rest, grooming, veterinarian care etc).
Even when handlers train their own service dogs, the process is still costly. Beyond the initial purchase price are several sets of in-person classes, consults with behavior experts, trips for socialization and public access training, equipment, regular veterinarian fees etc. Here is a link to a service dog cost estimate chart for the first two years. http://servicedogtraininginstitute.ca/train-your-own-sd/200-estimated-costs-of-owning-a-service-dog
Education and advocacy about service dogs is an important role that most people have no idea is part of being paired with a service dog. Interacting with members of the public who just see a cute dog they want to pet have and no idea they are not supposed to interrupt a service dog at work, educating retailers who ask the dog be removed despite the dog behaving and doing its job, advocating for their rights with accommodation providers who see the dog as a pet. Learning to handle people who pry into your medical condition because you have a dog is key. And these days, running into fake service dogs who are untrained, often aggressive and interfering with a working dog is more and more common. Some days it seems like too much work and can be overwhelming! Of course, there are good days too.
9. LGW: Are you satisfied with the results in using a clicker to train an SD? What are the pros and cons of using a clicker for this type of training?
DH: I have a blog post on the pros! It is often life-changing for the client once they embrace the principles.http://servicedogtraininginstitute.ca/blog/373-what-we-learn-by-clicker-training-our-dogs
10. LGW: Why is it important that people do NOT approach a Service Dog?
DH: Great question! A service dog who is working needs to be focussed on their handler. Even if the dog looks to be resting, they are still connected and ready to work. They are just on 'stand by'. If you are interacting with a service dog, the dog might miss giving an alert because he is distracted by you or he might miss a cue given by the handler to perform a task. In fact, in many jurisdictions, it is illegal to interfere with a service dog unless he is off duty and you are given permission to interact by the handler.
11. Member Question: How can people improve the success rate for training their own service dog to public access standards?
DH: There are 10 steps for that! LOL
Get professional advice before you start the process-before you get the dog.
Have a support team ready to go for both practical and emotional support.
Have a medical condition that doesn't significantly affect the dog or the training process.
Learn the service dog laws that apply to the state/province and country where you live.
Start with the best dog available.
Follow a structured program.
Be diligent about following it and recording success and failure.
Get professional help as soon as you need it.
Be realistic about how long it may take.
Be ready to use the dog only at home if s/he doesn't qualify for public access.
12. Member Question: What assessment tool do you use for puppies? and adult dogs?
DH: Good one! I have cobbled together one I use from several others. CARAT by Suzanne Clothier is the best overall. I understand it stands up to scientific research as far as predictability. But it can be hard to access as there are not many people who do it yet.
Member Question: Is everything covered in CARAT 01? Puppy Assessments? Or should I plan to attend 02 and beyond?
DH: Here's the link: http://suzanneclothier.com/content/carat
Member Comment: Thank you!
DH: Ideally, if you want to assess dogs for a living, the whole program would be something to consider. I haven't taken it myself and I don't know the details but if you are serious about learning this specific thing, it would be an ideal way to do it and learn from a great instructor.
13. Member Question: I am interested in learning how to become a Service Dog Trainer, what would you suggest for me and other trainers?
First, you have to love working with people when they are not at their best. Learn about the specific disabilities you want to train for. Learn how to apply the principles of learning, learn dog language, learn how to teach people, so many parts! The Human Half or Dog Training" by Rise Van Fleet is also helpful.
My online classes are a great way to start. Work with a dog to train the through the whole process to see if it's something you would like to do. Maintain high standards for the dogs you work with.
14. Member Question: Should all SD's be X-rayed for hip Dysplasia?
That really is up to the dog and vet you are working with. If the dog is from unknown background, then I would say Yes, ideally combined with other medical procedures like a spay or neuter to minimize time in the vet office, costs etc. There are so many factors in HD. Even the floor surface a pup is exposed to in the litter box, using stairs before 4 months etc. may affect how the hips develop so the more that is known helps.
15. LGW: Ok folks, time to wrap things up. Donna any final comments about the Service Dog Industry?
DH: Yes, if anyone is interested to see the test that dogs must pass in British Columbia before being certified for public access: Here is a link to the BC Assessment test. I like it better than the ADI public access test because it breaks the behaviors down further and so is easier to know if or not your dog is ready to pass it. It is also publically accessible which the ADI test is not any longer. http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/law-crime-and-justice/human-rights/guide-animals/bc-guide-dog-service-dog-assessment.pdf
If you want to learn more about SD, check out my website which has tons of free information as well as online classes and private consults by webcam.http://servicedogtraininginstitute.ca
LGW: Thank you so very much Donna, on chatting with us about such an interesting topic, and thank you to our members for asking the questions.
DH: You are welcome! Thanks for having me back!
Thanks for coming everyone! Please feel free to refer anyone you know thinking of training their own SD or wanting to get into SD training to this post or to my website. http://servicedogtraininginstitute.ca
Clicker Training Teaches us Many More Life Lessons!
Click here for Part 1
Improves our Eye/Hand Coordination: The mechanical skills used in clicker training can be learned. Our timing gets better with practice. So does our thought of where the reward is placed to set our dog up for success. We get better at using the equipment. We fine tune our motor and brain muscles for life's other activities.
Builds Creativity and Resourcefulness in Both Us and Our Dogs: We can teach our dog to be creative when it comes to learning new behaviors and interacting with us in different ways. We learn to be creative in applying the principles of clicker training to training our service dogs and to life. Many people with disabilities think resources are in short supply when in fact we aren't using our creativity to use what's around us to the fullest. Being resourceful is empowering!
More Than One Way to Get There From Here: There are many ways to teach behaviors and skills to service dogs and all of them can be positive! Dogs often don't do what we think they will but we can take what they offer and work from there. Our training plans may take a zag where we thought it would go straight or zig. When we learn to adapt our teaching, we find we can also apply this adaptability to our life! As we have found out, life doesn't always go as planned. In many cases, the zag can mean better things for us, if we go with it rather than stick to the original plan of getting there! Go with it! You can still get where you want to go, just find a different way!
How the Brain Works: In order to help our dog to learn to assist us in the world, we learn what happens when fear is triggered and how it inhibits learning. We learn what is needed to create environments that are suitable for our dog to learn quickly and easily so he can help us. If we suffer from anxiety, emotional disorders or high stress, we learn from our dogs what we can do about it to help us better function in the world.
The World Isn't Just About Us: When we really learn to apply the principles of clicker training, we learn that our dog has needs and wants just as we do. Our dog also sees things differently than we do. From there, we start considering other's perspectives. We don't have to agree or disagree, we just acknowledge that their view may differ from ours. That's okay! Their history and experience are different from ours. That gives them a different view, be they canine or human.
Process is More Important Than The Product!: Whether we are training our dog basic life skills, public access or specific service dog tasks, nothing is more important than the process. We spend about 99% of our time working towards goals. If we only enjoy the actual goal achievement, then we are missing out on the largest part of the goal: the process. To keep our dog and us moving forward, the process needs to be fun and enjoyable. If it's not, we stop doing it. The process is how we build relationships and strengthen trust.
What lessons have you learned from taking up clicker training? Share on my Facebook Page!
Clicker training is an approach to training your dog but it's also a life-improving philosophy! A person with any disability would do well to learn how to apply clicker training effectively. (By the way, you don't have to use a clicker to clicker train! You can use a word "Yup!" or sound like a whistle.)
There are many benefits to learning how to clicker train your service dog:
Generalizing: Once we start training our dogs to perform different behaviors in different locations, we find that they are often confused in the new location, not being stubborn. We discover that our dogs don't "know" a behavior or task until they have had a chance to relearn and practice it in many different locations. This is because they tend to look for small clues to tell them what we want. In each new location, they have to relearn the behavior from the start. We are very similar to our dogs. Most people think they are quite good at applying skills learned in one environment and used in another. I am sad to tell you, most are not. Think of when you have taken a class and then tried to use the information and skills in another class. I bet you made mistakes the first few times and had to relearn the skill? Perhaps even go back and read the information? Learning the principles of clicker training and applying them to many different behaviors, tasks and in different situations, we can learn how to generalize all of our knowledge and skills better. Once we become very skilled at generalizing, we can apply it anywhere correctly. That opens up a whole new world of what behaviors and tasks we can train our service dog to do for us. It also improves how we function in the world! Isn't that the whole point of having a service dog?
Read Dog Language: In order to use the clicker or marker well, we need to learn to read dog communication. Communication between dog and handler goes two ways. The dog must read us and we must read the dog. The dog's communication tells us if he is understanding what we want or how he is feeling about what he is doing. This information is useful when we are training. It lets us know that we need to modify our approach so our dog better understands what we are asking. This in turn, gets us thinking from another being's perspective. Why might the dog be doing what he is doing? There are reasons behind the behavior beyond being stubborn or stupid. This builds empathy in us. Empathy is a key ingredient in building and maintaining strong relationships with our dogs and with other people.
Shaping improves Observation Skills: One of the best parts of clicker training is shaping. Shaping involves starting with a tiny piece of the final behavior and then waiting for the dog to offer more of the behavior to get closer to the final behavior you want. Think of it like a series of snapshots in time that makes up a whole behavior. To use a phone, you must pick up the phone, turn it on, dial the numbers, press the connect button, then put the phone to your ear and wait for the ringing sound to stop. When we shape, each one of these behaviors can be marked and rewarded before putting them together as a whole behavior. Even smaller steps like bringing the phone from your chest up to your ear can be broken into smaller pieces. Learning to watch for these tiny behaviors improves our skills of observing.
We Use Our Minds and the Environment to Teach: When clicker training is used, we use our minds and the environmental set up to teach the dog what we want. We don't need to physically interact with a dog to teach him and he can even be at a distance from us. The dog's job is to figure out what will make us click and reward him. It is our job to figure out how to set up the situation so our dog will succeed. This allows more people with physical disabilities to train their own service dog. We learn that in life, the physical and emotional environment plays a huge role in the degree to which we are successful in what we do and for other people as well.
Put More Energy Into Rewarding Behaviors We Want: Society teaches us to focus on the incorrect responses and correct or punish those. Instead, with clicker training, we learn to focus on and reward the behaviors we want from our dog. The more often those behaviors are rewarded at the right time, the more often they will occur and the stronger they become. How often are we rewarded many times in a day? Wouldn't if feel better if we were rewarded more? We can start the change with our dog and it will build to positively affecting the people around you! Family, health-care workers, retail staff and others will feel the change and respond to it.
Break Behaviors and Tasks into Smaller Pieces: Every problem can be divided into tiny achievable steps. There is a saying: "Yard by yard, Life is Hard. Inch by Inch, It's a Cinch!" (Unknown) Every behavior, task, challenge or problem can be divided into tiny achievable steps. We just have to take the time to break them down and then do them. This process speeds learning and reduces the roadblocks to learning new things and refining known skills. And yes, applies to your life as a whole!
Learn What True Partnership Is: True partnership is taking turns following the lead of another that we trust. By using the principle of clicker training to create a partnership of trust, we can become more of a whole together than if we are separate. Dogs have a different skill set than we do. Those dog skills complement our human skills. We need to trust our dog to lead when he has the expertise. Other people have different skill sets. We need to learn to build partnerships with them too.
Shifts Our Whole Approach to Life Towards the Positive. Clicker training helps us understand our dogs and ourselves better. Anyone who embraces the philosophy has a shift towards being more positive in life. It starts by being more positive to our dogs and expands to being more positive towards other people in our life. The negatives still happen, but focussing more on the positives reduces the chronic stress that is detrimental to our physical and emotional health.
Learning is Lifelong: This is probably the most important lesson! We are never there yet. There is always one more task to teach our service dog or one more thing for us to learn. That seeking of knowledge and skills is what keeps us moving forward. Learning is fun!
I invite you to learn these lessons. Give clicker training a try!
Want to get Inspired?
Books to Read
Reaching the Animal Mind by Karen Pryor -Karen shares her personal experiences with clicker training to show what is possible with clicker training. It is inspiring, easy to read, enjoyable and each chapter has video links of examples!
On My Mind by Karen Pryor- This is a thoroughly readable series of essays about her personal views on clicker training.
Don't Shoot the Dog by Karen Pryor-This small books helps you to understand the learning theory. She uses great people and animal examples. Again, it is written for the layperson to understand.
To get started all you really need is a marker sound and a handful of small soft treats. Check out this video to see what other simple things you can use:
Jump right in with teaching simple behaviors your dog already does.
This video introduces the proper technique of clicker training. The specific example of eye contact, but you can use "Wait", nose target.
Your first session
Here is an example of learning to read dog language during training:
Jessie shows signs of stress
If you are on Facebook, join the Observation Skills for Dog Training group
A good next step is to take a Foundations Skills Class in Clicker Training! Have fun!
Owner training allows handlers to choose some non-traditional breeds or higher energy individual dogs that match their active lifestyle. Some people end up with dogs that have more energy than they bargained for or they inadvertently ramp the dogs up by how they interact with the dog (what they reinforce without knowing it like jumping up on their arrival or excited behavior in general). While it is important that these dogs get enough appropriate exercise, it is also important that these dogs be taught how to relax. The relaxation protocol created by Dr. Karen Overall is one tool that they can use to help teach a dog to calm themselves.
The relaxation protocol is an incremental way to teach a dog to calm himself in the face of distractions. It lays out a training process so the handler can add distractions in small enough bits that the dog can succeed. There are many layers to this protocol and they are laid out in detail for handlers to follow. A bit of creativity will be needed to adapt some of the distractions for people with balance or mobility challenges. A side effect of the protocol is building a reliable stay behavior which is ideal for service dogs. You can combine the protocol with a mat to more easily generalize it to different locations.
Here is a link to the text-based protocol.
Here is a link to audio clips that you can listen to while training.
If your service dog in training has a short attention span is antsy or has trouble focusing, it is worth trying the protocol. It is a great foundation to start training relaxing with a puppy too!
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