Click here to listen to an audio file of this blog post.

An alternative to commercially prepared treats (perhaps since you know what ingredients go into them and because homemade ones are often much cheaper as well as better quality), is to make your own. Here are some suggestions.

If you want to add nutrition, dust meat bits with debittered Brewers Yeast and kelp powder. Soaked millet, rolled oats and cooked barley are good substitutes for other treat recipes requiring wheat since they are higher in protein and are more easily digested by dogs.

High-Value Heart
Probably the highest value treat and the best tolerated food I have found for most dogs is heart. Heart is a muscle meat and there is no gastrointestinal upset if a dog eats a lot of it. It is high in taurine and counteracts the effects of legumes in grain free kibble. 

Purchase heart of any species. Ideally source the meat from a local butcher who has access to grass-fed animals. 
Cut off excess fat (for the larger animals) and slice the heart into half inch slices and cook on a no-stick pan without oil. Cook on both sides until there is still a little pink in the middle. Remove from heat and cut into cubes the size appropriate for your dog.

If you have some left over, they freeze well but are not as tasty as if fresh-cooked. Thaw for a few minutes before feeding. BBQing can increase their value. I use this for high distraction environments and behaviours I need to be strong away from home like recalls. Avoid using in low distraction environments or you risk your dog refusing other lower value treats. They are that yummy! LOL!

Chicken Patty Treats
For probably the most economically priced and easiest to prepare healthy training treat, purchase frozen chicken patties, sprinkle liberally with garlic powder and cook until done all the way through. Cut into 1/4 inch cubes and freeze.

When needed, thaw for 10 sec in microwave and cut again into quarter inch cubes. (about $3 per kg or $1.50 per pound!)

Liver Treats
Cooked Liver (beef, chicken, pork or turkey)
garlic powder flavoring

Sprinkle powder on liver and use outdoor BBQ to fry up liver slices. This prevent smelling up house. and cut into strips, then tiny bits. Freeze in containers. This is very rich and should not be more than 1/6 of your dog's daily food intake. Most dogs will get the runs from eating too much. A few dogs get goopy eyes from eating cooked liver.

Moist Meat Treats
A bit more sloppy treat is slow cooked chicken, turkey, duck or roast. Buy the cheapest cuts and cook until meat falls off from bones. Separate bones from meat and freeze meat bits in containers, using wax paper or plastic to make layers that container enough for one training session. Freeze. Thaw or microwave before using.

For the cheap cuts of meats such as beef or moose roast, cut into 3/4 inch steaks.

Freeze until ready to cook separating steaks with wax paper or plastic. Drop bundle on the ground to break apart and remove as many steaks as you want to cook. Thaw. Sprinkle garlic powder on both sides and let sit for a few minutes. Cook (in a no stick pan or BBQ) until brown all the way through then slice in quarter inch strips and freeze in containers. Cut into 1/4 inch squares after thawing.

These meats also do well when ground up in a food processor and put in a food tube. 

Beef/chicken/turkey Patty treats
1lb lean ground beef, chicken, or turkey
2 eggs
1-2 cup quick oatmeal (add more or less depending on consistency-more for higher fat meat)
garlic powder to taste

Mix all ingredients into a giant patty (or several smaller ones) and flatten to very thin. Cook on a no stick fry pan until cooked. Flip and cook all the way through.

Cool and cut into strips, then tiny squares and freeze on cookie sheet. Then scoop bits into containers for freezing. This does have a somewhat crumbly texture so best used at home. This recipe is more work (and more expensive) than the chicken patty treats above)

Cheese Bits
Use a mild chedder or marble cheese and cut into 1/4 inch cubes. On hot days can get a bit mushy.

Hard Boiled Egg Bits
Hard boil an egg or two for 10 minutes and let cool. Peel the shell off and cut egg white and yolk into small pieces and freeze in a small container. Take a few out for training sessions and let thaw for a few minutes (or microwave for 15 sec). The yolk is usually highly prized by dogs. It is a bit messy but works well for in home training.

Egg variation: Make french toast and cook all the way through. Cut into quarter inch cubes and freeze until needed. You can also make a double egg omelet in a very small pan. Flip it over to cook both sides until dry. Cut into squares. Mixing in a bit of flour before cooking can help it stick together better. 

Kidney Bean Treats
Slow cooked kidney beans are high in protein and do not cause gas in most dogs. They are very cheap and make an ideal, if somewhat sloppy treat.

Place 2-3 times as much water as beans in a slow cooker, turn on high and cook until tender (about 4 hours).
Use a slotted spoon and lift beans onto cookie sheet in a single layer and freeze.

When frozen, remove from freezer, let thaw for about 3 minutes or run water over the back of the cookie sheet, then lift with flipper or butter knife and break into bits and freeze in containers. It looks like peanut brittle at this point. Place into containers and freeze.

Take them out of the freezer for a few minutes before using during training. Juice makes a tasty additive to dry foods.

If you mash them, you can use them in a food tube too!



Have other favorite recipes? Please share them with us!

Here is a list of behaviors that can be observed from the previous videos.
You may seen more than this!

1. Grinning Dog

Laying down
Head dip
Ears flatten
Front legs shifted
Tail wag
Straightens body
Smile
Fold left leg under
Looks at ground (or shoes?)
Licking lips
Shakes head
Stands up
Shakes body
Looks at owner (with eye contact)
Licks lips
Bows
Smiles
Shakes body
Blows his cheeks out
Dips his head
Smiles
Briefly stands still
Licks lips

(In case you are interested, many of these are calming behaviors meant to calm both the dog himself and the owner. The behavior context is that the owner just came home from being away at work. The dog could also be offering the behaviors in response to seeing the video camera.)

2. Dog Doing Nothing-Golden Retriever

looks at camera
turns head away
lifts head
sniffs
obvious blink
softens eyes
looks away
looks back
holds head still but looks at camera (so we can see whites of eyes called whale eye)
looks towards camera
turns ahead quickly to straight position
lifts head
drops head, looks to left and sniffs

That's just in the first 30 seconds! 

That’s a lot for doing nothing! 30 (or more) behaviors!

3. Papillon close up

Moves head to left
Rotates eyes to left
Moves chin down
Looks down
Looks back at camera
Moves head back towards camera
Sniffs camera
Opens eyes wider
Looks to left
Moves chin down to left
Looks back at camera (as camera pans away)
Lifts head slightly
Turns head to right away from camera
Rotates ears away from camera
Looks back at camera
Blinks
Looks down as turns head past and away from camera to left (avoids eye contact)
Looks down
Looks up past camera
Blinks
Turns eyes
Looks down and up


So, what did you learn from watching the dogs behaviors in these videos?

Hopefully, that dogs offer many clickable behaviors all day long. We trainers just have to improve our observation skills and our clicker timing to be able to capture them to use them to shape behaviors we desire!

Observation skills are critical to developing good clicker skills. You can easily improve your powers of observation by taking the time to watch your dog, or someone else’s. Go to a dog park and watch dogs interact or sit on a park bench for a break with your dog and watch other dogs as they walk by on leash with their owners.

Practice Without Your Dog
Take a break during a walk to sit where you can see people and their dogs walking by. Choose a behavior and watch for clickable behaviors in the stranger’s dogs. A clickable behavior is any behavior that the dog does or is part of shaping towards a specific desired. For example, greeting a person politely. Watch that dog closely and use your pointer finger as a pretend clicker and tap it on your leg when you observe any behavior that is part of greeting a person politely. They might include sniffing an offered hand, dropping head when approaching, sitting when approaching, looking away, looking back at their handler, standing calmly after approach etc.

Any behavior is fair game, including mouth movements, more subtle body movements, etc. When you have tried this on three or four dogs, count how many clickable behaviors another dog does. You might be amazed!

To continue your practice, start looking for more subtle behaviors. Watch what a dog does with his eyes and ears. If you watch your own dog closely you can start picking out blinking, relaxed eyes, wide eyes, pupils dilating during play, subtle breathing patterns, muscles relaxing or tightening and much more. For some training situations, you may need to click these as a tiny step in the start of shaping the direction of the new behavior.

Videos
You can also watch videos or DVD's of dogs to see how many behaviors they actually do offer that could be clicked! As you learn the bigger behaviors, such as scratching, yawning etc, you can start looking for smaller behaviors. The more subtle behaviors may be hard to see in videos so that’s why watching real dogs up close is best.

Watch these short video clips and make a list of how many different behaviors you can observe. Turn off the audio so it doesn’t distract you. For a list of behaviors that can be observed, see the next blog post.

1. Grinning Dog

2. Dog ‘Doing Nothing’ (according to the owner)

3. Papillon close up

4. Daxie head pictures look for more subtle behaviors

Dogs Do Behaviors All the Time.
Some behaviors are for movement, some are for communication with other dogs and humans, some express emotions, some are just dog behaviors! Most behaviors are clickable in the training context. As your powers of observation improve, you’ll be able to capture not only head turns, chin dips, and tightening muscles, but even eye movements!

(Aside: If you are interested in learning what many of these behaviors mean, you can read books such as “On Talking Terms with Dogs” by Turid Rugaas which explain the meaning and context of social interaction behaviors and help you understand dogs better or sign up for our online self-paced class "Dog as a Second Language" Class at Fenzi Dog Sports Academy. The class is like a book with photos an videos. Registration is open the 22 of July, Sept., Oct., Dec., Feb, and April) to the 15 of the next month.

Check out the answers to the questions here
The following is a letter we received from a person who emailed us asking for help. It is a glowing report that owner-trained dogs (using positive methods) can be every bit as useful as a program dogs, even if the handler doesn't know how to train when they start!

Dear VIAD,
"It's almost been 3 mos since I asked you about helping train my chihuahua, Clarice, to scent my blood sugars. Again, I couldn't go wrong watching your wonderful videos and following your advice. It only took me all of 3 days of teaching her to scent my blood sugars. She's already saved my life 4 x's by waking me up in the middle of the night w/my sugars being dangerously low. I had enough time to grab my granola bar on my nightstand before possibly slipping into a diabetic coma.

She goes everywhere I go, including sleeping w/my husband and I, Now, my dog behavioral trainer (who does cost me a fortune) suggests that no dog should be allowed to sleep in the same bed as their owner, but when I told him my story...he now included an exception to his rule.

I cannot thank you enough for all of the wonderful videos that are helping me train her. In fact, today I purchased one of your training CD's.

Again, I cannot thank you enough for a new-found freedom I've found w/my dog. As I had promised before...I will continue to keep you updated w/Clarice's progress. I never had so much fun & confidence in knowing that I could train ANY dog. You & your videos have changed my life completely. I plan, in the future, getting a golden retriever to train in servicing my physical needs, but that's way ahead in time, as I have to perfect Clarice's skills first.

Also...by all means...feel free to post this email on your site for others to read. I give you complete permission to allow others to know that even those people who think/believe they could never accomplish this...actually CAN!!! I never had any formal training for any types of pets. Your website, blogs, and videos have given me so much confidence and the pride to say that I did it all by myself!!!

Diana & Clarice" (4 lb Chihuahua)
 
Question:
"I'm wanting to train my dog as a diabetic alert dog being that I'm insulin dependent. My question to you is what training tools do you use to teach the dog how to detect low blood sugar & high blood sugar (sensing)? I've asked numerous trainers on youtube this question, but no one has responded. My dog already does the targeting exercise with flying colors thanks to you and your video. Can you help me? TY :)"
Answer:
Most people use a Tshirt or other clothing that has sweat on it from when they had a low blood sugar reading as the training object and store it in a sealed plastic bag like a ziplock when not using it.

Others breathe on a pad when their blood levels are low or high and seal it in a ziplock type bag or small vial.

Still others prefer to soak a small cotton pad in their saliva as they are having a low. These probably store the best for training purposes and are more accurate for the dogs than using sweat.


If you can get a blood sample, that works well, especially if you can test and know how high or low it is. Blood samples, however, break down quickly so are not as accurate. 


Dogs can be trained to alert to any sugar level you choose. You don't want the sample reading too low when the dog alerts, as you want to be alert enough to be able to still help yourself. Most people use a reading of 70-80 to train their dog asthey are still functioning and able to help themselves. 


In our training videos, replace the sound with the scent. Let the dog smell a small sample of the blood ( in a vial or other quick opening and sealing container) before cuing the alert behavior during training. Most dogs catch on to this quickly since they are so scent-oriented.


Please refer to our 4 blog postings (pt1, pt2, pt3, pt4) and embedded videos on training a one and two way alert.


Good luck!


How to Train a One Way Diabetic Alert


Ideally start by training with the actual diabetic person or you will have to retrain the dog to alert to the other person later.


1. Train and practice the alert behavior separately.


For example: use targeting to teach a nose touch on your leg. Shape it into a hard nose nudge just above your knee. An easy position to start training this behavior is with you in a sit. Then when your dog is successful, change your position to a stand, squat, sit on the floor, face the dog, turn to your side, turn your back etc until your dog can nose nudge you in any position. Add distance.


2. Present the smell of the sweat or blood sample. Click and treat your dog for any interest in the smell (sniff, lick etc). Do not c/t a bark or other noise! Place the smell on your lap, on the ground and other places and see if the dog seeks it out to sniff. When your dog is consistently indicating that she smelled the smell, go to next step.


3. Present the smell and immediately cue nose nudge. (sniff, cue 'touch', dog nose touches, click as nose makes contact, then reward)


4. When your dog is offering nose nudges consistently, fade the cue (touch). Present the smell alternating using the touch cue and not and see if you get the behavior. After several repetitions, the smell alone will trigger the alerting behavior (nose nudge). If not, keep practicing with the cue. Now the smell has become the cue to do the alert behavior. Practice this until your dog nose touches after sound 8/10 times before moving on.


5. Change positions from sitting to standing to facing towards dog and away. Practice crouching, sitting on the couch, sitting at the table, laying down on your bed and other places you might normally be when a low or high blood sugar might occur. When your dog is successful at this level, try doing other behaviors such as pretending to do the dishes, talk on the phone, watch TV etc. while presenting the smell.


6. Next add distance in one foot intervals. You can throw a treat away from you to get the dog away from you. Present the smell beside you.


7. Change positions where the dog is in relation to you (the source of the smell). For example, throw a treat down a hallway, around a corner etc. Then present the smell.


8. Adding distractions such as one, two and more people in the room, TV or radio on, a person standing between you and the dog, person engaging you in conversation etc.


9. Ask a helper to be nearby as a distraction when you present the smell on your body. Decrease distance at first, increase it as your dog is successful (to say where the dog is laying on her dogbed and alerts you from there).

Your dog may want to go to them to alert first. Ask your helper(s) to ignore the dog by avoiding eye contact, not responding to the alert, not petting or otherwise distracting the dog etc. You then give your alert cue "touch" and your dog will come to you to alert. C/t.

You will need to practice this several times before the dog understands that it is only when she alerts you that she gets rewarded. Adding other helpers in the room and training the same way with all of them (prepare them as to what you want them to do if they dog alerts to them). With many repetitions, your dog will learn to search only you out in a crowd.


10. Use a timer to cue you to present the smell on you at unpredictable times during the day. Ideally, try not to let your dog see you set the alarm or she will anticipate that you are doing it. For example have it set to go off when she is relaxing next to you, or on her bed, when she is playing quietly with a toy, when she is sleeping lightly, when she is sleeping soundly. Ideally, she should jump up from a sound sleep and run to you to give the alert. If she is sound asleep, she may hesitate and she may be disoriented, but give her up to to 6 seconds the first few times (count one one thousand, two one thousand in your head) to assess what is going on and to start moving towards you before helping her by cueing the 'touch' cue. Do not say the cue if she starts moving towards you before that time. As she gets more practice, allow her less time decreasing in one second intervals (but always allowing at least 3 seconds to orient on her own).


11. Generalize the behavior by training at different locations, starting from the beginning at each location.