I was recently asked how a person would go about finding a trainer that will help them to train their own service or assistance dog. Here is my answer.
Before you even get your dog, consult a trainer. They can help you find and assess the best candidate (puppy or adult dog) so you have the best success. Involve them in the process from the start! They may offer puppy classes or can refer you to someone locally who does. They can help problem solve unwanted behaviors as well as train the basics and more advanced including tasks. And they can help prepare your dog for public access. Using web cams and mobile devices, this person can be anywhere in the world and can go with you in public places too. In-person carefully structured classes are ideal, of course, for teaching your puppy and dog to focus on you in the presence of other puppies and dogs.
The first assumption is that the trainer needs to be an experienced service dog trainer. While this is helpful, this is not necessarily true. The most important part of a service dog is that the dog can pass the public access test. Here's another link: IAADP
This means the dog must behave appropriately (calmly, no barking etc) in public, be able to perform common cues (sit, down, wait, leave it etc) and not be fearful or aggressive towards people, animals and the wide array of situations s/he will be faced with when assisting their handler in public. This is the hardest (and often the longest) part of the training so choose a trainer that is going to set you and your dog up to succeed and you will look forward to working with them in the long-term. If they would like to talk to me about the process, learn about laws etc, have them book a consult with me to ask all their questions. You can find another trainer online who specializes in training the tasks once your dog is well on his way to being able to do public access or check out the task classes we offer.
1. Start by looking for a trainer that fits your personal training philosophy for both you and your dog. You will be working with this person or company for the next 2 years or more, so choose one who you get along with. Take a set of 4 classes with them before you commit to big amounts up front. That gives you both time to see if you get along. Consider both in-person and online trainers. If you live rurally, going to weekly classes may not be possible. You may live where you can't find a trainer you like. Online classes might be the best for you and your dog so you can learn the skills before you go to class and use it to reteach the behaviors in the presence of higher level distractions (other people and dogs).
a) Ask around (friends with dogs, dog clubs, veterinarian etc). Check the internet for trainers near you.
There are several directories to help:
Choosing a trainer that uses positive reinforcement allows you to build a strong bond and create a confident and eager worker willing to take risks during learning. A trainer who understands how to correctly apply the 'quadrants and principles of operant conditioning' will help to ensure they understand how to break behaviors into small enough steps so your dog will be successful at each step. Dogs that get frustrated or who are punished (corrected) typically shut down and do not offer the creative and intelligent behavior choices a service dog will need to offer during his/her career. Look for an "About" page on their website. It should outline their training philosophy and techniques, maybe even mentors. If it doesn't mention their approach or methods, then ask.
Do be aware the term "positive" is applied in many ways, so just because a trainer calls themselves "positive" does not mean you will get one that uses primarily reinforcement-based training. "Balanced" trainers use a combination of both positive reinforcement and correction-based approaches (positive punishment). Dominance-based trainers tend to use force, physical manipulation and intimidation (such as invasion of the dog's personal space) to get behaviors, much emphasis is placed on verbal praise, and the use of food or toys is rare. The use of electronic (shock) collars and prongs has also been labelled positive. The are not wrong, in fact they are 'positive punishment' which is what we want to avoid when teaching people and dogs. Positive punishment is the addition of something the dog doesn't like in order to stop a behavior.
b) Since you are the other half of the service dog team, the trainer will need to be able to anticipate and accommodate your needs as well. How do they interact with you personally? Are you comfortable with them? What training have they done to learn how to train people? TAG teach (Teaching with Acoustic Guidance) is a good certification to have. Training as a teacher is handy. Training in ABA (Applied Behavioral Analysis) is a bonus as is a person with a Master's degree in Behavioral Psychology. Anyone that has worked with children or people with special needs or disabilities (and enjoyed it) may be a good choice as they understand how to adapt their training to your needs. What teaching experience have they had? Choose someone that can provide structure, is organized, and can keep you on track since the process can take up to 18 months or more.
2. Next, look at their dog training credentials. Is the trainer a current member of any recognized training associations? Are they members of any service dog related organizations like the International Association of Assistance Dogs Partners IAADP or International Association of Applied Behavior Consultants IAABC? Do your research on the internet and find out the methods endorsed by these organizations.
Have they taken training or been certified by a recognized organization? Are they a tester or instructor for any? Which ones? Do they participate in regular (at least annual) professional development? (That is, keeping current on new ways to teach both you and the dog?) It might be in-person workshops or seminars, could be on-line learning or even purchasing books and DVD's, reading magazines etc. Are they a leader in their field and teach others?
3. Do they have an area of specialty? This will be one or two areas they have a greater knowledge of due to either a special interest or more experience (might be puppies, fearful dogs, aggressive dogs, working with children, service dogs, etc). Trainers that list many "specialities" are likely using them as keywords on their site to be found by search engines. They need not have a specialty for a specific type of service dogs as the foundation for all of them are the same. You can work with another trainer who has expertise in your specific disability when training the specific tasks you need. That can start down the road once your dog is comfortable working in public. Most tasks are comparatively easy to teach. The hard part if helping the dog learn to gneralize them (perfrom them in many different locations).
4. When you have narrowed your list to 2 or 3 possible trainers, ask them some questions. Talk to them in person, on the phone, or via video chat. E-mailing is usually too time-consuming. Make an appointment to ensure they have time to talk to you. Explain that you are doing research to find a suitable trainer to help you train you and your service dog for the behaviors in the Public Access Test.
a) Ask them who handles the dog. If at any time does someone other than you (dog's partner) handle the dog? In what situations? Are you comfortable with that?
b) What type of training equipment do they use (collars, harness, food, objects, people etc.)
Some collars use force and punishment (prong, choke, e-collar) while others are designed to avoid that (head collars, front clip harnesses) but still give you more control over the dog's behavior. The use of a non-restrictive body harnesses is preferred. Head halters need to be specifically conditioned on the dog and they train you to use them properly, avoiding jerking or lifting in their use. A flat collar is used for tags. R+ trainers will not use choke chains, prong collars, electronic (shock) collars or harnesses that tighten on the dog like some front clip harnesses. Also watch how they use the tools. A leash can be used aversively by popping or jerking, or can be used as an emergency back-up only. The latter is what you want to aim for.
c) Where do they train with you? At your home? Their facility? Public places later on?
d) If a dog doesn't do what they want, how do they respond? For example, if they ask the dog to sit and he doesn't. Answers will vary from 'make him', 'push his butt down', to 'start with where the dog is at (assess for understanding, distractions, stress level etc) and train from there'. The second answer is preferred.)
e) Can they list 5 calming signals given by dogs in a stressful situation? If they don't know what signals a dog uses to communicate stress (look away, whale eye, yawning, lip licks, sniffing, avoidance etc), this is not a good sign as they probably also don't understand thresholds.
f) Can they tell you when the various fear periods are in a dog's development? These will affect performance during training, especially during adolescence. (fear periods are 8-11 weeks, 4 to 8 months, 6 to 14 months)
g) Do they do an assessment of the abilities of you and your dog? It might a verbal or a practical or both.
h) Do they offer semi-private or private lessons if needed?
i) How do they deal with aggression and fear? Listen for methods to reveal their knowledge level as much as a general approach. Methods such as forcing a dog to endure something it is afraid of (called flooding) or correcting the dog for growling or barking (called positive punishment) etc is now recognized as being damaging to both the dog and the relationship. Adding distance between the trigger until the dog stops reacting and using food or play to change how the dog feels are accepted ways to deal with fear or aggression.
j) What teaching methods do they use to help you learn how to teach your dog? Verbal explanations, visual info (posters etc), demonstrations with their own dog, demo with your dog, mirrors, video recording of training sessions, written logs and /or journals, step by step videos, reading assignments, handouts? Is it okay if you write things down?
k) As they explain what they do, listen very closely to the language they use. "The dog MUST Do...", "We use only praise", "You push the dog's bum down", "The dog is being dominant" or "Your dog is part of your pack" rings alarm bells in a handler looking for a positive reinforcement approach. A trainer who recognizes that a dog (and their human) always has a choice in the behaviors they do during learning is one who may understand how a dog learns. One of those choices is to say "No." Words like "luring", "capturing" and "shaping" are good ways to get behavior.
l) What will they do if your dog develops fears or aggression? What setups they use to retrain this? Do they use controlled situations (lots of distance, or visual barriers, use fake dogs or dolls for children (called decoys) to start the dog well below fear threshold. Do they use muzzles if necessary?
m) Can they tell you what under threshold, counter conditioning, systematic desensitization, Behavioral Adjustment Training (BAT), Look at That (LAT) mean?
n) Ask them names of authors and other dog trainers they emulate. Research them to see how positive they are. Some names (in no particular order): Paul Owens, Ian Dunbar, Jean Donaldson, Karen Pryor, Patricia McConnell, Denise Fenzi, Grisha Stewart, Kathy Sdao, Nando Brown, Coppinger's, Steve White, Jesus Rosales-Ruiz, Emma Parsons, Sue Ailsby, Pamela Dennison, Victoria Stillwell, Leslie McDevitt, Silvia Trkman, Emily Larlham, Eva Bertilsson, Melissa Alexander, Steve Dale.
o) How knowledgeable/open are they to using additional approaches such as Tellington Touch (TTouch), body wraps, massage, recorded sounds, flower essences, etc.
p) Ask what they believe the social structure of dogs is. The most current research indicates dogs have a very loose social structure based on avoidance of confrontation and maintaining social peace. They DO NOT live in a dominance hierarchy, nor in packs. The most recent understanding of dominance is that it occurs in specific situations between two dogs over a single resource. It is not a personality trait. Typically trainers who believe in social hierarchies will also use force and correction during training. Research also indicates the use of both positive reinforcement and correction/positive punishment together is very confusing to dogs and results in less learning.
5. Go back and review the info you have gathered about each trainer. Which might be a good fit for you? Find out by watching classes at different levels (beginner, intermediate and advanced) to see what both dogs and handlers can do). The trainer should allow you to watch for free to help you decide if you like their teaching approach to dogs and people. Ensure that the trainer you watch is the one you will be working with. Take notes so you can compare them later. Record things you like as well as concerns you have. The trainer should be able to address to your satisfaction any concerns that may affect your service team's experience. Note things like, do they talk with each person? Can s/he recognize that a student is having trouble and help them to be successful in that lesson? Are the lessons structured for a group or individuals? Did the trainer do a demonstration with a dog first? Did the trainer use visuals or props? Did she talk the class through each step?
6. While at the class, evaluate their training location for your needs. Look for wheelchair accessible washrooms, ramps, acoustics, temperature, lighting, windows etc. What specific things will you need that aren't there? Is the trainer willing to make alterations? Will the facility work long-term for you and your dog? Think about the colder seasons too.
7. How big are the classes? Smaller is better. Classes of 4-6 dogs are ideal to start. Larger can be chaotic, even if there is more than one instructor. If they have 12 or more dogs in a large space, even with a second trainer, it probably isn't the class for you as you won't get enough personal interaction with the trainers and it is harder to see and hear and understand in larger classes with the instructor standing far away especially with poor acoustics. If this is the only option, start with private classes so you and your dog already know the behaviors before taking group classes. That way, you can work on using the class to add distractions, rather than having them work against you while learning new behaviors.
8. Get references and ask previous clients questions about the training process, effectiveness of the trainer, ability to adapt training to the person or family's special needs etc.
9. Use all of what you found and how you feel about the trainer to decide if s/he is a good match for you and your dog.
10. Book several classes and see how they go. Re-evaluate after the sessions are over. What progress did you and your dog make? How did you feel about the sessions? Can you work with this trainer in the long run?
11. Keep your research records as you may need one trainer to help with the basics, another to help with the specific service tasks and still another to help as specific challenges crop up. If you learn to trust them, this gives you a support system to draw from.