Once your dog has been trained to do a specific behaviour, any training tool you use needs to be gradually removed from training (faded) or replaced with a different cue for the dog to know that she's working. Fading is the process of removing the training tool from use usually after a cue is added to the finished behaviour. 

Why Not Stop Using Training Tools Cold Turkey?

While some dogs who catch onto concepts quickly (those who are able to generalize well) will quickly adapt to removing a training tool, most dogs need transition time to learn a new cue for the behaviour, then learn that the tool is not actually needed as a cue to do the behaviour. They need structure to gradually remove their reliance on the tool to know what to do and when to do the behaviour.
Fading the tool rather than just removing it will reduce frustration for both the handler and the dog. Fading prevents the extinction phase that occurs when removing training tools cold turkey. 

What Training Tools for Service Dogs Need to be Faded? 

  • lures
  • platforms/pivot
  • barriers
  • targets (nose, paw, stick)
  • mats
  • front clip harnesses
  • head halters
  • prong collars
  • any other tool you have introduced to help you teach your dog a new behaviour

What Process Would You Use for Each? 

First, make sure that your dog understands and can perform the behaviour fully, the behaviour is "on cue" and the dog can perform the behaviour a timely manner in each specific environment, and with some distractions. What that level of distraction is depends on the training tool and what behaviour it is used for. 

Next, break down the criteria to fade for each tool. Looking at single criterion and breaking each one down can help make the fading process fast and easy. Here are some criterion for the examples above.

  • lures- "fake" luring (presence/absence of food), lure changed to hand signal, food or toy delivered after mark from out of sight (treat pouch or table top).
  • targets (nose, paw, stick)-size, texture, distance
  • platforms/pivot-height, size, shape, texture, presence/absence
  • barriers-distance from them, solid or see through, presence/absence
  • mats-size, thickness (height), presence/absence
  • front clip harnesses-other cue
  • head halters-other cue, attached to leash/unattached, presence/absence
  • prong collar-other cue, attached to leash/unattached, inside out, presence/absence

3 Examples of Loose Leash Walking (Loose Heeling) Training Collars 
I want to be clear that these tools do not teach the dog to walk on a loose leash. It is what else the handler does that teaches the dog where and how to walk on a leash. We know this because if the tool is removed, the dog will move out of position, and even pull on the leash. Until the handler takes the time to teach their dog the position where they want her to be, that it is a rewarding place to be, to stay in that position as the handler moves around obstacles in life and to move with any slight pressure from the leash, the dog doesn't really understand the behaviour and is likely only responding to the presence of the tool. Tools that restrain a dog are actually more for the handler than the dog. It gives the handler confidence that they can control the dog until a strong enough relationship is built that the training tool is no longer necessary. 

Flat Walking Harness: Front Clip 
This is what SDTI recommends for all dogs to wear. A vest or bandana with a Service Dog patch is typically worn over top of the harness. The harness does not tighten or chaff and can be put on easily with a clip rather than a buckle. Some examples: Balance Harness or Perfect Fit or similar designs like the cheaper Hamilton Harness. The leash is attached to the front chest clip to redirect the dog back to you when she pulls.

Do training set ups at home. To start fading the front clip, attach a double-ended leash or use two leashes. One clips to the front chest ring and one to the back ring.

With the dog at your side, hold the leashes so that the back ring leash is a little shorter than the front ring leash. That way you can put a little tension on the back clip, then put tension on the front clip. Mark and reward the dog when she responds by moving closer to you. This introduces the tension on the back clip which becomes a new cue for the front clip tension.

Repeat until your dog is reliably responding to the back clip pressure the same way she does for the front chest ring. Now add some movement, keeping the back clip leash a little shorter than the front clip leash. That way if your dog pulls, tension is put on the back clip first and the front clip second. 

Once you can walk about 50 feet with your dog moving with you, gradually increase the distraction level. When she is successful, you can stop using the front clip by unclipping and removing the front clip leash and just holding the leash attached to the back or top of the vest or back clip. 

Head Halter 
Most dogs really dislike the head halter, some designs more than others. In addition, members of the public mistake this tool for a muzzle, which does not give them confidence in the handler's ability to control the dog. So the sooner you can wean your dog off this tool, the better.

Do training set ups at home. Teach your dog that gentle tension on the back clip means the same as gentle tension on the head collar. Attach a double-ended leash or use two leashes: one goes to the head halter ring and one to the back of the vest or flat walking harness. Hold the leash so that the back clip is a little shorter than the head halter leash. That way you can put a little tension on the back clip, then put tension on the front clip. Mark and reward the dog when she responds by moving closer to you. This introduces the tension on the back clip is a new cue for the front clip tension. Repeat until your dog is reliably responding to the back clip pressure the same way she does for the head halter. Gradually increase the distance you walk with her.  Then the distraction level.

When she is successfully responding to the slight leash pressure on the back ring, use only one leash on the back ring and having the dog wear the head halter but not attaching the leash to it. Review loose leash walking like this until you are confident that your dog will keep the leash loose without the leash attached to the head collar in more and more distracting environments. When she is successful with that, take the head collar off and go for a short walk in an easy environment to see if your dog understands the behaviour is the same as when she is wearing the head halter. 

Prong Collar or Pinch Collar
You can follow the same approach as the two other tools above to teach your dog that tension on the back ring of a harness or vest is a new cue for the prong collar.

Do training set ups at home. Teach your dog that gentle tension on the back clip means the same as gentle tension on the prong collar. Attach a double-ended leash or use two leashes: one goes to the back of the vest or harness ring and one to the prong collar. Hold the leash so that the back clip is a little shorter than the prong. That way you can put a little tension on the back clip, then put tension on the prong. Mark and reward the dog when she responds by moving closer to you. This introduces the tension on the vest/back clip is a new cue for the prong tension. Repeat until your dog is reliably responding to the back clip pressure the same way she does for the prong. Gradually increase the distance you walk with her. Then gradually increase the distraction level.

When she is successfully responding to the slight leash pressure on the back ring, use only one leash on the back ring and having the dog wear the prong but not attaching the leash to it. Review loose leash walking like this until you are confident that your dog will keep the leash loose without the leash attached to the prong in more and more distracting environments. When she is successful with that, turn the prong inside out and repeat the process. This gives her the feel of wearing something on her neck. Go for a short walk in an easy environment to see if your dog understands the behaviour is the same as when she is wearing the head halter. Next, take the prong off and use only the leash attached to the back ring.

Having Trouble? 
If you find that you cannot easily fade the training tool, then the fading steps you are using may be too big for your dog. Try breaking the criterion down finer or giving your dog more time at each step, or training each step in different locations to help her generalize. Problem-solving is key! Contact us to book a web cam session if you need help fading tools!


Marking in dogs is defined as when the dog lifts his leg on objects or people and leaves behind a small amount of urine. 

Marking is thought to be related to marking a territory. The dog leaves his scent to tell other dogs he has been there.
A dog that is not confident may feel the need to mark objects and even people. Most dogs seek out objects that stick out in the environment. In a moved lawn, the dog will find the talked based of grass.
This behaviour is most often see when a dog is stressed. 

Stress increases cortisol production in the body and higher level of cortisol causes more urine to be produced. More urine needs to be excreted.
Some dogs use marking as a displacement behaviour. That means when they are uncertain about something or want to change how they are feeling, they do a behaviour that is a common behaviour to them (the thought is that it provides some comfortable to them as well as gives them time to process the situation). This might included sniffing the ground, scratching themselves, yawning, looking away or even peeing for short bursts (marking). 

Any major stressor can trigger a dog to start marking when that dog has never marked before.

  • Changes in living situation: joining a new family, adding or losing another dog or person. Change of physical arrangement (furniture) or living in a different house. 
  • Change in the relationship or health of another dog or cat in the house.
  • Addition or use of ammonia-based cleaning products. These contain the same chemical as urine and residue may trigger a dog to want to "over-mark" as if he is covering another dog's urine.
  • Very high arousal such as playing with another dog or doing a very exciting activity.
  • Change in development stage (adolescent increase in testosterone typically peaks at 11 months)
  • Going through a fear period.

As the situation is resolved (the dog gets more comfortable with a new living situation, relationships and trust is built, or the dog gains skills in dealing with situations and or individuals that trigger concern or fear), there will likely be a reduction of marking. For example, my current female dog Jessie (GSD mix) used to mark about every 50 feet on walks when we first got her (7 months to about 2.5 years). She was a nervous dog who had just changed homes, was now living with 2 senior dogs and people of different age and activity level than she was accustomed to. As she grew more confident /comfortable with us and learned where her boundaries were with our senior dogs and us, the need to mark decreased. She had been spayed at 10 weeks of age so that was not part of the issue.  

Another example, I had a ESS/Dal mix who would only pee in the yard. He would not mark there. When we got a second dog, our golden, he started marking in the yard. Once he felt comfortable with her a few weeks later, he stopped marking. When he was away from home he rarely marked. Only when he encountered larger male dogs that he was afraid of, would he mark several locations near the other dog until we moved away from the other dog. He did not do this near small dogs of either sex or female dogs of any size. He was neutered at 8 months of age.  

How do you Prevent or Solve the Issue? 

1. First, rule out a health issue for frequent urination such as a bladder infection (often seen in females they strain to pee and little comes out, may be accompanied with blood in the urine). 

2. Look at the situation from your dog's perspective. How  might he be feeling? What is stressing him out? How can you build his confidence? 

3. Handle the situation as you would a small puppy:

  • Confine your dog when you cannot directly supervise (meaning you are actively watching him). Keep him in one room with you.Close doors, put up baby gates. Block access to areas behind couches etc that you cannot see.
  • Take him out on an hourly basis.
  • Clean up any residue with vinegar and enzymatic cleaner which breaks the urine down into chemicals not recognized by a dog. Make sure to clean anything marked by other dogs as well and also clean splashes on the wall. Depending on how bad the marking has been, you may need to clean drapes or even remove the carpet and replace with smooth flooring. 

4. Build his confidence

  • Introduce him to other family members more gradually. Give him his own space. Give him time to acclimate to a new location, people etc.
  • Work with both dogs together but with a barrier between them (X-pen, baby gate etc) to give the new dog space. Gradually reduce the distance between them, then when the two dogs are showing relaxed body language in each other's presence,  you can reduce or  remove the barrier. 
  • Use counter conditioning to desensitize him to scary things. 
  • Use a structure like the "Look at That" game from Leslie McDevitt's Control Unleashed. 

5. Reduce the frequency of potty outings. 

6. Put the pee behaviour on cue (service dogs need this behaviour anyway). Teach it to the point of stimulus control. Start with teaching it in your yard. Then cue him to pee before you leave home so he's empty.
Next, choose a few designated places on your daily walks where he is allowed to pee and cue him to do it there. He is not allowed to pee anywhere else. Interrupt him (9. below) if he starts to pee anywhere else.

7. When he is not needing to go out as frequently to pee (about 4 hours), gradually increase the amount of space or rooms that he has access to. Start this by spending time in that new space or room with him: let him explore while supervised right after being out for a pee, play with him, provide a chew toy to chew on, bring his mat a crate for resting while you watch tv or talk on the phone etc. 

8. Teach him a positive interrupter such as a kissy sound to have him turn back to you. Build up the distraction level gradually so he learns to turn back to you no matter what the distraction might be. 

9. Then, if you catch your dog in the act of starting to mark (sniffing around or hiking his leg) in the house or away from home, use a positive interrupter (such as a kissy sound) to redirect him. It is perfectly okay to pull firmly and steadily on his leash to move him away from the object he is peeing on if he is slow to respond to your interrupter. 

10. When training in public places, be aware that some stores that use ammonia to clean their floors and windows and that ammonia is found in plant fertilizers (garden centres). Many well-trained dogs make mistakes when ammonia residue is present. At least, it might explain why your dog might be making the mistake. It simply means you need to do more proofing and set ups with ammonia.
Some notes:
Spaying or neutering may reduce making but does not stop it. Do your homework before spaying or neutering your dog as there can be both physical health and behaviours side effects especially in Golden Retrievers and German Shepherd dogs. (See Health blog posts)
Both males and females may mark, spayed or neutered or not. Interestingly, both sexes may also lift their legs when they pee or mark. 
Once it becomes established, the behaviour may be a learned behaviour (habit). Getting help with behaviour modification may be needed from a professional positive reinforcement trainer. 
Belly bands (bands that are put around a male dog's belly and over his penis) or panties for female dogs can be problematic as they can keep bacteria in contact with the skin and result in health issues if not changed very frequently. Changing how the dog feels and the environment to help that is a far more effective way to help your dog change the behaviour. 

When first starting out with your service dog candidate (whether puppy or "new to you" dog), it can be fun to teach new behaviors and tricks! Learning how to learn is an important part of a service dogs skills. You do need to be careful with your choice of the first  5 or 6 behaviors though, as choosing the wrong ones can add more work or even derail your training as your dog progresses.

Some of these behaviors can be used as alert behaviors later on so we want to be thoughtful how we teach them and what cue we pair them with. This means after YOU have some experience in training behaviors and have a better idea of what you are doing and your dogs' temperament is like.

All of these behaviors are likely to become default behaviors when your dog dog doesn't know what else to do, when you are shaping him or when he gets frustrated. Most of them are self-reinforcing, which means just doing them feels good, no reinforcement is needed from you so he will keep doing them even when you don't want them. They can also be hard to get rid of once they are established, even if you teach a cue for them and put them under stimulus control.

Wait until your pup or dog understands the concepts of a 'behavior on cue' and 'stimulus control' for at least 5 more basic (foundation) behaviors before you teach any of these.

  • spinning (this can become a obsessive compulsive behavior)
  • shake a paw (can interfere with a nose target since the cue is very similar, a lifted paw encourages others to interact with your service dog, can interfere with a dog's communication with you since you might misinterpret it)
  • jumping up or paws up even if on cue (especially with large dogs and the behavior an become an attention seeking behavior) 
  • licking face
  • biting at your face (misinterpreted by others)
  • lifting lips "smile" (can be mis-interpreted as a snarl by strangers, is also an appeasement behavior)
  • barking (on cue) Service dogs can be asked to be removed from a public place if they are disruptive. (Avoid teaching barking as an alert behavior)
  • digging
  • ringing bells to go out to potty
  • scratching the door to go out (wooden doors get damaged in public places)
  • nose nudge of hand (can easily become a demand to pet behavior when you are distracted especially if you absently stroke the dog's head)

Save sniffing for medical alerts until later as well. Sniffing comes naturally to dogs and scents do not need to be "imprinted" at a young age for the dogs to be successful medical scent detectors (diabetic alerts, seizure alerts etc).

Great behaviors you want to start with instead are:

  • eye contact
  • four on the floor
  • sit
  • nose target
  • bringing things to you
  • dropping objects
  • following you (loose leash walking off leash)
  • adding duration to all wanted behaviors

Check out our Foundations Skills Classes for guidance on how to start teaching the basic skills a service dog will need. 

Here's a new study comparing professionally trained service dogs with self-trained (owner-trained) service dogs.

It used self-reporting
retrospective question/answer style. Some insightful observations that may be helpful for people considering if or not training their own service dog might work for them. 

The research looked at:

  • different methods of training service dogs (professional vs owner-training)
  • different severities of human partners' disabilities 
  • different roles of service dogs 


Click on the link to read the study and see the references.
Professionally- and Self-Trained Service Dogs: Benefits and Challenges for Partners With Disabilities

If you are considering having your dog help you with mobility wheelchair transfers, this article will help you to understand the reasons why not to use your dog as a transfer tool. 

Let's look at what mobility transfers are, 5 bio-mechanical reasons not to have your service dog help you with them and how you can learn to do them yourself.

What are Mobility Transfers? 

Any movement involving a shift of weight by a person with limited mobility to move them from one surface to another surface.
Typically the person uses their hands and arms to take some pressure while other parts of their body are shifted.
The person needs at least a partial ability to stand. Transfers may be done by the person alone or with assistance from another person or sometimes 2 people.
Transfers can also be done mechanically with a manual or electric lift. 

Here are some examples.

  • bed to wheelchair  https://youtu.be/BWzcIl1SGgw
  • wheelchair to toilet
  • wheelchair to tub or shower
  • wheelchair to couch
  • wheelchair to car
  • ground to chair (after a fall)

The number of transfers per day adds up quickly.

The Primary Goal of a Successful Transfer
is to prevent falls and avoid injury (shoulders, arms, skin, bruising) of the transferring person.
A secondary goal is for the person to use the wheelchair independently.

Injury Among Human Helpers
Transferring a person from one surface to another is one of the highest causes of long-term injury for human helpers of wheelchair users.
Another is the rotation while pushing the chair (lower back compression).

The Same Can Be Said for Service Dogs
The goal of having a service dog is to help the handler to gain more independence but not by putting the dog at risk,
especially when there are other more effective and less harmful ways for a person to transfer themselves.
Service dogs can easily get injured during transfers and be rendered useless to the handler. The handler potentially loses not just independence, but their partner.

5 Biomechanical Reasons Why Not To Have Your Service Dog Help

1. Dogs are not designed to be weight-bearing, even large dogs.

Dogs don't have a collar bone like humans have, and the muscles do the work of holding the shoulders together. Pressure goes from the muscles to the dog's spine. Muscles, tendons, ligaments and spine can be injured with just a small amount of weight, even in big dogs. Soft tissue injuries take a long time to heal. Spine injuries can be chronic and disabling for a dog.

While some breeds of dogs are bred to pull carts, they can carry only a very small amount of weight. Pulling a maximum of ten percent of their body weight is generally recommended for dogs with a suitable bone structure and are appropriately muscled. This weight is spread over their body with proper harnesses and is a pulling forward motion. 

2. Humans have little ability to estimate the amount of actual pressure they put on their hands, especially while in motion.

Typically for transfers, handlers place their hand or hands on the dog’s shoulder. The recommended weight is 10% of the dog’s body weight, the same as for pulling except the pushing pressure is downward.
Say your mobility dog is 45Kg (100 lbs). Do you know how much pressure 4.5 kg (10 lbs) feels like?

Try this: Use a bathroom or kitchen scale and place your hand (fingers or knuckles) on the scale for 5 seconds and try to hold it at 4 Kg. Don’t look at the scale but have a friend or family member watch the scale to tell you the highest amount of weight you put on the scale after each trial. Repeat 10 times and write down each trial result. How accurate are you on average to put a maximum of 4 Kg on the scale?
I bet not very!
Now imagine you are trying to move your body to one side, balance it and estimate and control the amount of weight you put on your dog’s shoulder. Can you do it? Are you willing to risk her health? Using a stabilizing pole or transfer board that can take much more weight than what you can put on it makes more sense than using your dog.

3. There is too high a risk that the weight may be placed in the wrong location.
People with physical disabilities are often told to put the pressure directly over the dog’s shoulders when using the dog for stability, rather than on the back or rear end. The idea is that the weight will get transferred to the ground rather than stressing the dog’s muscles or bone structure.
During transfers, it is not always possible to place your hands exactly where you want them since where the dog can stand may not be ideal for the transfer. The handler’s angle may also put the pressure in the wrong place on the dog.

4. It’s not just simple weight involved.
If your dog moves during the process (accidentally pushed by too much pressure form you, takes a step to the side, gets distracted etc.) she is adding shearing force to the transfer.
Shearing force is unaligned forces pushing one part of a body in one specific direction and another part of the body in the opposite direction. If the forces push together, this results in compression at the centre point (like spine compression).  If the forces push away from each other tearing results (like cruciate ligament tears). Neither is what we want for a service dog’s spine, tendons or ligaments.  

5. Depending on the handler’s level of disability, there may need to be many transfers each day. The more transfers, the more stress that is put on the dog’s body.
This comes out in the long-term wear of the dog’s skeletal system and the greater probability of injuring your dog.
This can shorten your dog’s working life and result in severe pain even if he never suffers an acute injury.

Learn How to do Transfers Without Your Service Dog’s Help,

Consult your physiotherapist or occupational therapist. He will show you how to use your body and tools in your environment to safely transfer yourself in and out of a wheelchair no matter where you are based on your specific abilities. Have your dog sit or lay down off to the side until you are safely transferred, then put her back to work.

Here is a partial list of tools to use instead of your service dog:

  • poles
  • grip bars
  • railings
  • armrests
  • transfer/sliding board
  • swivel cushions (that rotate easily such as for getting in and out of the car)
  • metro car handle to push up on-fits on U-bolt of door lock
  • ramps

Other suggestions:

  • raising beds and car seats in low cars or lowering beds and car seats in high vehicles helps to ease transfers from higher to lower
  • drive wheelchair directly into the car (including driver seat)
  • place leading hand -lower (pushing) or higher (pulling) are better than median such as on the steering wheel, which puts more torque on the shoulder and increases the chance of injury
  • etc.

 If you are training a mobility service dog, check out our new class Wheelchair Loose Leash Walking for Service dogs. 

It can be hard to find good treats to use for training. Here's simple recipe that you can adapt. 

Fast Dog Treats:


Mix together:

  • 4 large eggs 
  • half to 3/4 cup canned pumpkin
  • a splash of milk
  • 1/4 cup flour (rice, wheat or tapioca). 


Mix all to a pancake consistency (no lumps).
Spread in a silicon waffle tray.
Cook in a microwave for about 2 min.

Makes about 3 cups of non-crumbly treats suitable for 60 lb dogs. They freeze well. 

Use a silicon tray with smaller holes for smaller treats.

treats on a red silicon pan

Ever wonder how good trainers can teach their dog to walk nicely on leash without any correction tools? No matter if you are teaching your dog to heel or loose leash walk beside you, your wheelchair, walkers or crutches, the basis of the behaviour is the same! 

In order to help your dog understand where you want her to be, the key is to heavily reinforce her in that position in many, many situations so she gets a picture in her head of where she is in relation to you. Try These Tips:

Start Off Leash 
Surprised? Yes, by training your dog when she is free, she solves the puzzle of finding the desired position herself, with no help from you. This uses her brain rather than teaching her to rely on the leash.The leash should only be used as an emergency connection. The bonus is that you avoid developing bad habits of using the leash to guide your dog. You want her to understand where she needs to be without your help. This avoids having to correct her for positions you don't want. 

Have a Clear Picture of Where You Want Your Dog To Be 
This is your criterion. You will be rewarding her whenever she stays within that target position. Where is her nose in relation to your leg or the wheelchair? Exactly how far away will she be from your legs or the chair? Or perhaps it's easier to see where her shoulders are in relation to your knee or chair. Whatever way you can make it easy to measure it, use it. 

Heavily Reinforce the Desired Position While Stationary 
Feed your dog 10 times in a row (one treat at a time) for staying there. Reward her 10 times in a row, being careful of treat placement. Present the treat directly in her mouth so she doesn't have to move to get it. 
Change your position by rotating one quarter of a turn (90 degrees) and repeat. 
If your dog can't find the position while you are staying still, she won't be able to find it when you are moving!

"Play" With The Position by Rewarding Your Dog for Finding the Position 

Take one step to the side and see if she can find the position again. Reward heavily.
Turn left. Reward heavily.
Turn right. Reward heavily.

Keep Sessions Short
Count out 10 treats and dismiss your dog for a one minute break. This gives her time to think about it and build new neutral pathways.  This is essential for new learning!
Do a few only a few sessions. Most dogs do well with 3 sessions (3 sets of 10 repetitions). Some can focus for 5 sets. The key is always end the sessions with your dog wanting to do more. If she walks away, you've done too much. 

Add The Leash As a Separate Training Criterion
Put on your dog's collar or flat non-restrictive walking harness and attach the leash. This adds difficulty for you, not the dog.
You must figure out how to hold the leash, or where and how to attach it. Perhaps a waist or shoulder attachment might be better for you.
You need to develop the ability to deliver the treat to the same place you did when the dog was not wearing the leash. 

Gradually Increase Distraction Levels 
This is the most common error people make and then they resort to training collars and harnesses since they don't know what else to do. The sad thing is many people never remove them once they start using them. Training collars and harnesses are supposed to be like training wheels on a bicycle, to help the dog learn the skill, then remove them as quickly as possible. 
In order to mimic off leash conditions in areas that are not safe to work your dog off leash, use the professional tip of standing on the end of the leash or attaching the leash to a waist band. This gives your dog freedom to choose to move and be able to find the position without being restricted or tempting you to control her with the leash. At the same time, it gives you the peace of mind knowing she will safe safe if an unexpected distraction comes along. 

Each Time You Add or Change Equipment, It Changes The Picture of You To Your Dog 
With each new piece of equipment, restart teaching your dog the position. 

If you want more details complete with step by step videos, join our foundation skills classes to learn several ways to teach your dog the desired position, and loose leash walking classes to learn how to apply them in motion in different situations like stairs and locations or take our loose leash walking class specifically for wheelchairs. We offer classes for other skills as well! 

While the study was done specifically for seeing eye dogs, the finding applies to handlers with mobility/brace dogs.  This study which suggests rigid harnesses put more physical stress on a dog's body than flexible harnesses, especially on the lower right side of the chest.

One would think which side gets more pressure would vary depending on which side is the handler's dominant side and which side of the handler the dog is on. Our dog's physical health and safety is worth looking into.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140102112237.htm
 

Since many people have Golden Retrievers as their service dog, I thought I would include this study. Interestingly, my previous Golden Retriever was spayed at 7 mos and was definitely longer-legged than her siblings who were not (conformation dogs). She lived to 12.5 years with no health issues until the very end she had an undiagnosed tumour in one of her nails. We had the toe removed. She died of a multiple back to back heart attacks in a few hours a few months later.

http://news.ucdavis.edu/search/news_detail.lasso?id=10498

If you remember back in history to the days of castrated male choir boys (called castrati), you may remember that in all the pictures, the boy were very tall and thin. This is because when the testosterone is removed at a young age before they have stopped growing, it is not present to tell the bones to stop growing at the normal age. Their bones ended up being longer and thinner than they would have otherwise been so they ended up being taller too. This also resulted in the rib bones being longer which meant a greater lung capacity. That was good for singers. Of course the lack of testosterone affected their voice box too so they had much higher voices for singing and their voices never deepened as a normal teens would. Altered dogs also show a noticeable increases (chest "drops") in the rib cage. 

Many people consider getting a Golden Doodle or other poodle mix. I recently discovered a great book approved by the Gold Doodle Association of North America. It is a fantastic book that provides a great overview of Golden Doodles! I recommend reading it BEFORE you line up a breeder or put a deposit down on a puppy.
 
It is clear that Golden Doodles and other poodle mixes are mixed breed dogs. They are not recognized as a "breed" by any organization. 
Any other breed mixed in can be called a Golden Doodle. 
They explain the F1, F2b etc.
Buying from a responsible breeder is key to getting the health, temperament and activity level that will best suit your lifestyle.
Check out breeders who are members or who follow the GANA code of ethics for breeding. They must do specific health tests on each parent. The parent dogs must be 2 years of age and not be bred after 7 years of age. 

That there are four coat types: flat, straight, wavy and curled.
Straight and Wavy are the most desirable. Flat are the same as Golden retrievers (shedding) and curly is like poodle but often heavier (and requires more work to maintain and mat often if not brushed out daily).

There are different sizes. They have different temperaments due to different sizes of poodles being used as the parent breed. (Standard, moyen, toy and mini)

There is no such thing as a truly hypoallergenic dog. Hypo means "low" allergies, not "no" allergies.
People can be allergic to the proteins in the saliva, urine and/or on the dander of dogs.

There is a new test that can be done for the gene for an incorrect coat type (which is recessive). If breeders know if their dogs carry it they can breed accordingly to improve the probability of getting more of the desired non-shedding coats.

Doodles should not be washed any more often than once a month or the dog's skin may dry out and it triggers skin issues.

They are prone to many diseases common to both breeds, most of which can be tested for:

  • hip dysplasia
  • elbow dysplasia
  • Progressive Retinal Atrophy (2 kinds)
  • cataracts
  • glaucoma
  • entropian/ectotropian
  • Von Willibrands disease (blood doesn't clot properly)
  • Addison's Disease
  • in the minis: luxating patellas
  • diabetes
  • cancer
  • congestive heart failure
  • subaortic stenois
  • heart murmurs
  • hypothyroid
  • seizures
  • bloat
  • allergies
  • ear infections ( may be related to allergies)
  • hot spots
  • interdigital cysts


Puppies should not go to their new homes until at least 8 weeks of age (This is written in state laws in most states).

Golden Doodles may vary in the amount of energy/drive and exercise they need depending on what lines the parent breeds are from. Generally, lines from hunting/sport may have more energy. Conformation/show lines may have less. (English lines may have lower energy needs than American sport lines.)

That positive reinforcement is best for training a doodle.

The book: (also available on Kindle as an e-book)
The GoldenDoodle Handbook Linda Whitwam 2016

GANA Member Breeders

There is also a Labradoodle club but the breeders ethics is optional to membership so do your due diligence when talking with the breeder to make sure to see the results of the health tests. Note that the temperament of the Labradoodle is different than a Goldendoodle due to the parent breeds being different breeds.

Additional Information 

What I took away from the book is that golden doodles vary widely and that is because many of them are first and second generation dogs. It is not usually until after about the 6th generation when most lines will be more consistent in the structure and fur of the puppies.

Any dog with the 'goldendoodle' in the name can be a mix of a poodle and any other breed. I know of students who thought they were getting a golden retriever/poodle mix and instead they got a Great Pyrenees mix. Golden retrievers and Great Pyrenees have very different temperament, size and build from each other. Make sure to ask what the foundation breeds are for your specific litter!

The amount you pay for a Golden Doodle is usually set by regional demand for the dogs. Never pay ridiculous prices for pups whose parents have not been health tested. Ask to see the test results. A simple veterinary check does NOT qualify as health testing. The actual DNA has to be examined by experts so blood samples need to be sent out. 

Note: They recommend that the breeders use the Volhard Puppy Aptitude test. Many research papers have found that such tests are not a predictor of the future temperament or personality of a dog but instead more of a reflection of what the breeder has already done with the individual pup.

Some breeders also will have the pups spayed or neutered prior to going home with their families. Others will ask for proof of spay or neuter at one year of age. If you plan to use the dog as a your service dog, males should be kept intact until at least one year or age and females 18 mos. This is to prevent the full normal bone development to occur before the hormones are removed. Removing the hormones (especially testosterone in males) can result in longer thinner bone structure, increased risk of cancer, hypothyroid diseases etc. In females spaying reduces the incidence of mammary cancer and pyometra but increases risk of cancer, low bone density issues the same as males etc. See our other blog posts on this. Extensive research has been done on both Golden Retrievers and German Shepherds on the juvenile spay or neuter topic. Neutering a fearful dog before maturation can increase a male dog's fearfulness.

If your dog has a "doggy" odor, check for fungal and yeast growth. They may grow in moist areas like between the foot pads and in the ears. Washing more often will not help. You will need to get a fungal or yeast treatment from your veterinarian. Washing their bedding will though if you treat the dog at the same time.

Curly coats that have a heavy texture can be very difficult to maintain and groom. They are more prone to matting that other coat types.

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